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Wealth of Nations : Advanced Technologies and the Future of Medicine and Surgery

Richard M. Satava, Yonsei Med J, 2008년 발간

세부항목 안내표
대분류 키워드 Time Horizon Quality Territorial Scope
Technological Robotics, simulation, virtual reality, advanced technologies, biointelligence 없음 Recommand Global

Issue 보고서

요약

Everything occurs in cycles: revolution, change, adaptation to change, acceptance of the new standard, codifying the new establishment, resistance to further change, revolution and the cycle begins again. In healthcare and surgery, this cycle had been occurring about every 100 years, but recently there has been a perceptible acceleration of this cycle. The first revolution for surgery came during the Industrial Age in the mid 1800's with the simultaneous introduction of anesthesia, asepsis, pathology, new instrumentation, and so on. Nearly a hundred years later, in the mid 20th Century as the Information Age was about to begin, surgery was advancing with antibiotics, intravenous fluid and hyperalimentation, radical surgery resections and chemotherapy to name but a few. By the 1990s, laparoscopic (or minimally invasive) surgery emerged and became the standard for many procedures. Information Age technologies, such as video cameras and monitors,

continued the evolution. But technology is accelerating faster than ever, and we are on the threshold of yet another revolution. This is referred to as the BioIntelligence Age,1 an age of multidisciplinary medicine, which can achieve much more than a single researcher or clinician. The complexities of nature are yielding to inter-disciplinary teams performing multi-disciplinary researchgenomics as a combination of biology and information sciences or robotics as a combination for physical (engineering) and information sciences. Much as previous revolutions, this current transformation is occurring because many different technologies are converging to fundamentally change surgery. There is a veritable explosion of new discoveries, such as genomics, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), robotics, intelligent systems, molecular biology, etc. The entire healthcare environment and culture are changing at an unprecedented rate of innovation that challenges the practicing physician every day. The change is occurring because of "disruptive technologies", which seemingly completely reverse the fundamental approaches overnight that have been standard for decades. In addition to technology, the surgical environment includes clinical practice, reimbursement, regulatory, education and training, certification, research and clinical trials. Since it is not possible to do justice to all those competing forces, the focus shall be upon the impact of technology, while fully admitting that at any one time, any of the factors plays a dominant role in the life of a physician.

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CLINICAL PRACTICE

EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

RESEARCH FOR CLINICAL TRIALS

MORAL AND ETHICAL CHALLENGES

CONCLUSION

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