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Wealth of Nations : Future Transport Fuels

Future Transport Fuels Expert Group, Future Transport Fuels Expert Group, 2011년 발간

세부항목 안내표
대분류 키워드 Time Horizon Quality Territorial Scope
Technological Transport Fuels 없음 Highly Recommand Regional

Report 보고서

요약

Transport fuel supply today, in particular to the road sector, is dominated by oil [1], which has proven reserves that are expected to last around 40 years [2]. The combustion of mineral oil derived fuels gives rise to CO2 emissions and, despite the fact the fuel efficiency of new vehicles has been improving, so that these emit significantly less CO2 , total CO2 emissions from transport have increased by 24% from 1990 to 2008, representing 19.5% of total European Union (EU) greenhouse gas emissions. The EU objective is an overall reduction of CO2 emissions of 80-95% by the year 2050, with respect to the 1990 level [3]. Decarbonisation of transport and the substitution of oil as transport fuel therefore have both the same time horizon of 2050. Improvement of transport efficiency and management of transport volumes are necessary to support the reduction of CO2 emissions while fossil fuels still dominate, and to enable finite renewable resources to meet the full energy demand from transport in the long term.  

본문

 

List of content

Executive Summary...........................................................................................................4

1. Introduction: Alternative fuels at the core of sustainable transport............6

2. Current transport fuel supply and projections.............................................9

3. Alternative fuel options..............................................................................................................11

3.1 Electricity.................................................................................................12 3.1.1 Battery electric vehicles..........................................................................14

3.1.2 Hydrogen.................................................................................................17

3.1.3 Electricity from the grid..........................................................................20

3.2 Biofuels (liquid)...........................................................................................21

3.3 Synthetic fuels...........................................................................................29

3.4 Methane.....................................................................................................32

3.5 LPG...........................................................................................................36

3.6 Fuel mix outlook.......................................................................................37

4. Fuels of choice by transport mode............................................................38

4.1 Road........................................................................................................38

4.2 Rail...........................................................................................................39

4.3 Aviation....................................................................................................40

4.4 Waterborne...............................................................................................40

4.5 Modal fuelling outlook..............................................................................41

5. System analysis: fuels-vehicles-infrastructure...........................................42

5.1 Well-to-wheels analysis...........................................................................................................43

5.1.1 Well-to-wheels energy consumption and CO2 emissions of cars ..........43

5.2 Life cycle aspects.......................................................................................46

5.3 Infrastructure overview..............................................................................46

5.4 Economics..................................................................................................47

6. Strategy 2050...............................................................................................52

7. Road map 2010-2050...................................................................................56

8. Actions 2010-2020.......................................................................................58

8.1 Policy approach.........................................................................................58

8.2 Legislation..................................................................................................59

8.3 Incentives...................................................................................................62

8.4 R&D support..............................................................................................64 

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