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Wealth of Nations : Future trends in geospatial information management: the five to ten year vision

UNGGIM, UNGGIM, 2015년 발간

세부항목 안내표
대분류 키워드 Time Horizon Quality Territorial Scope
Environmental Geospatial 2025년 Highly Recommand Global

Scenario 보고서

요약

This 2015 edition of the Future Trends report recognises that the most significant changes in the geospatial industry will come not through a single technology, but rather from linking multiple technologies and policies. The first part of the report, which has been produced through a global consensus process, focuses on the new and emerging trends; these are explored through a series of themes covering one or more topics. The second half of the report incorporates, where relevant, changes that have occurred in the trends identified in the first edition.

Due to increased global urbanisation, it is expected that more focus will be placed on urban environments. The integration of smart technologies and efficient governance models will increase and the mantra of ‘doing more for less’ is more relevant than ever before. The emerging trends of Smart Cities and the Internet of Things, coupled with of smart resource management and interoperable services, will lead to a focus on citizen services, better land management, and the sustainability of resources.

The development of intelligent informationprocessing technologies, will provide easier access to a wide range of different services which were previously used for separate applications. These include home and industrial automation, medical aids, mobile healthcare, intelligent energy management, automotive and traffic management, to name only a few.

The next five to ten years will see significant developments in the architecture of the internet. Currently the internet is humanorientated; the shift towards machine learning and the adoption of the Internet of Things will bring into play devices which are, to all intents and purposes, autonomous and act independently whether or not anyone, or any system, is actively using them.

There is an increasing tendency to bring together data from multiple sources: official statistics, geospatial information, satellite data, big data and crowdsourced data among them. For the full potential of these data sources to be realised, it is agreed that data needs to be accessible, interoperable and standardised. This theme is recognised throughout the chapters of this report, and stems from this need for users to be able to integrate different sources and types of information.

The role of National Spatial Data Infrastructures is more important than ever before. They can provide the means to organise and deliver core geographies for many national and global challenges including sustainable development. The paradigm of data availability is changing; there is a huge increase in the tracking and availability of realtime data. It is no longer just for mapping and delivery, but for integration, analytics, modelling and aggregation.

Work continues at a global level with international standards. The widespread and effective application of standards in many digital information fields is crucial not only for the continued effective use of internetbased products and services, but also for collaborations between different data organisations.

Although views on policies for the use of authoritative data are fairly consistent around the world, culture has a big influence. Governments are moving towards being commissioners of information rather than creating it themselves. They are working increasingly closely with private sector organisations and are able to add a stamp of authority to data and services provided through public-private partnerships.

New data sources and new data collection technologies must be carefully applied to avoid a bias that favours countries that are wealthier and with established data infrastructures. The use of innovative tools might also favour those who have greater means to access technology, thus widening the gap between the ‘data poor’ and the ‘data rich’.

Governments remain in a unique position to consider the requirements for geospatial information for society as a whole and will continue to play a key role in providing a reliable, trusted and maintained geospatial information base. The exact role a government chooses to take in geospatial information management, the challenges faced, and the changes made will vary from country to country.

Governments retain a key role in ensuring that comprehensive and robust frameworks are put in place with related policies, resources and structures to ensure that geospatial information is easily accessible to decision makers in a coordinated way.

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1 Smart Cities and Internet of Things 9

1.1 Increased urbanisation leading to global challenges

1.2 The growth of Smart Cities 9

1.3 Connectivity through the Internet of Things 9

2 Artificial Intelligence and Big Data 11

2.1 Artificial Intelligence and machine learning 11

2.2 Value realised through Big Data 13

3 Indoor positioning and mapping 15

3.1 Trends in technology for indoor positioning 15

3.2 Integration between outdoor and indoor positioning 15

3.3 Standards 16

3.4 Requirements for mapping 16

4 Integrating statistical and geospatial information 17

4.1 Integrating different data sources 17

4.2 The role of standards 17

4.3 Integrated approach to the 2020 round of censuses 19

5 Trends in technology and the future direction of data creation, maintenance and management 21

5.1 ‘Everything happens somewhere’ – the new wave of data creation 21

5.2 Cloud computing 21

5.3 Opensource 22

5.4 Open standards 22

5.5 Trends in ‘professional’ data creation and maintenance 23

5.6 Positioning ourselves in the next five to ten years 24

6 Legal and policy developments 25

6.1 Growing awareness within the Geographic Information (GI) community 25

6.2 Funding in a changing world 25

6.3 Open Data 27

6.4 Licensing, pricing and data ‘ownership’ 28

6.5 Privacy 28

6.6 Liability and the issue of data assurance 29

6.7 Disparities between legal and policy frameworks 29

7 Skills requirements and training mechanisms 31

7.1 Skills for effective organisations 31

7.2 Extractive value from a world of data 31

7.3 Education and advocacy 32

7.4 Investing in research and development 32

8 The role of the private and nongovernmental sectors 33

8.1 Making mapping accessible to the masses 33

8.2 The future role of the Private Sector 33

8.3 The future role of VGI and crowdsourced geospatial data 35

9 The future role of governments in geospatial data provision and management 37 

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